In December 2007, the Congress expanded the renewable fuel standard (RFS), which requires rising use of ethanol and other biofuels, from 9 billion gallons in 2008 to 36 billion gallons in 2022. To meet the RFS, the Departments of Agriculture (USDA) and Energy (DOE) are developing advanced biofuels that use cellulosic feedstocks, such as corn stover and switchgrass. The EPA administers the RFS. This report examines, among other things: (1) the effects of increased biofuels production on U.S. agriculture, environment, and greenhouse gas emissions; (2) federal support for domestic biofuels production; and (3) key challenges in meeting the RFS. Includes recommendations. Charts and tables.
In conjunction with the 50th anniversary of the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency, this book brings together leading scholars and EPA veterans to provide a comprehensive assessment of the agency’s key decisions and actions in the various areas of its responsibility. Themes across all chapters include the role of rulemaking, negotiation/compromise, partisan polarization, judicial impacts, relations with the White House and Congress, public opinion, interest group pressures, environmental enforcement, environmental justice, risk assessment, and interagency conflict. As no other book on the market currently discusses EPA with this focus or scope, the authors have set out to provide a comprehensive analysis of the agency’s rich 50-year history for academics, students, professional, and the environmental community.
The search for altenative, renewable sources of fuel and energy from plants, algae, and waste materials has catalyzed in recent years. With the growing interest in bioenergy development and production there has been increasing demand for a broad ranging introductory text in the field. Bioenergy: Principles and Practices provides an invaluable introduction to the fundamentals of bioenergy feedstocks, processing, and industry. Bioenergy provides readers with an understanding of foundational information on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd generation biofuels. Coverage spans from feedstock production of key energy sources such as grasses, canes, and woody plants through chemical conversion processes and industrial application. Each chapter provides a thorough description of fundamental concepts, definitions of key terms, case studies and practical examples and exercises. Bioenergy: Principles and Practices will be an essential resource for students, bioengineers, chemists, and industry personnel tying key concepts of bioenergy science to valuable real world application.
Despite a gradual and sustained decline in the contribution of agriculture to the economies of the member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the sector remains socially and politically important. Although agriculture accounts for less than 2% of the gross domestic product of the OECD countries, it occupies over 35% of their total land area. Predominantly rural regions, where agriculture remains particularly important, contain almost one quarter of the population of OECD countries. The past quarter century has witnessed signi?cant changes in agricultural po- cies in OECD countries. Although total support remains high, a shift has taken place from price-linked measures to direct income support, most notably in the European Union. Policies have been adapted to meet pressing social concerns, such as ens- ing food security and improving environmental quality. OECD countries face major economic issues due to the ageing of their populations and the need to adapt to gl- alization and increasing competition from emerging economies. Continued pressure to reform agricultural policies will be exerted by the need to economize on the use of scarce public resources. At the same time, agriculture faces new challenges g- erated by climate change, the “greening” of the economy, increasing scarcity of energy and water, and the demands placed on the food system by an expanding world population.
This volume features research and case studies across a variety of industries to showcase technological innovations and policy initiatives designed to promote renewable energy and sustainable economic development. The first section focuses on policies for the adoption of renewable energy technologies, the second section covers the evaluation of energy efficiency programs and the final section provides evaluations of energy technology innovations. Environmental concerns, energy availability and political pressure have prompted governments to look for alternative energy resources that can minimize the undesirable effects for current energy systems. For example, shifting away from the conventional fuel resources and increasing the percentage of electricity generated from renewable resources, such as solar and wind power, is an opportunity to guarantee lower CO2 emissions and to create better economic opportunities for citizens in the long run. Including discussions of such of timely topics and issues as global warming, bio-fuels and nuclear energy, the editors and contributors to this book provide a wealth of insights and recommendations for sustainable energy innovations.